State-of-the-Art Imaging of Infiltrative Cardiomyopathies: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2023 Nov;16(11):e000081. doi: 10.1161/HCI.0000000000000081. Epub 2023 Nov 2.


Infiltrative cardiomyopathies comprise a broad spectrum of inherited or acquired conditions caused by deposition of abnormal substances within the myocardium. Increased wall thickness, inflammation, microvascular dysfunction, and fibrosis are the common pathological processes that lead to abnormal myocardial filling, chamber dilation, and disruption of conduction system. Advanced disease presents as heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias conferring poor prognosis. Infiltrative cardiomyopathies are often diagnosed late or misclassified as other more common conditions, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertensive heart disease, ischemic or other forms of nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Accurate diagnosis is also critical because clinical features, testing methodologies, and approach to treatment vary significantly even within the different types of infiltrative cardiomyopathies on the basis of the type of substance deposited. Substantial advances in noninvasive cardiac imaging have enabled accurate and early diagnosis. thereby eliminating the need for endomyocardial biopsy in most cases. This scientific statement discusses the role of contemporary multimodality imaging of infiltrative cardiomyopathies, including echocardiography, nuclear and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis, prognostication, and assessment of response to treatment.

Keywords: AHA Scientific Statements; arrhythmias, cardiac; cardiomyopathies; echocardiography; heart failure; magnetic resonance imaging; radionuclide imaging.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • American Heart Association
  • Cardiomyopathies* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cardiomyopathies* / pathology
  • Heart
  • Heart Failure*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Myocardium / pathology