Vaccination Coverage by Age 24 Months Among Children Born in 2019 and 2020 - National Immunization Survey-Child, United States, 2020-2022

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2023 Nov 3;72(44):1190-1196. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7244a3.


National Immunization Survey-Child data collected in 2022 were combined with data from previous years to assemble birth cohorts and assess coverage with routine vaccines by age 24 months by birth cohort. Overall, vaccination coverage was similar among children born during 2019-2020 compared with children born during 2017-2018, except that coverage with both the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine and ≥1 dose of hepatitis A vaccine increased. Coverage was generally higher among non-Hispanic White (White) children (2-21 percentage points higher than coverage for non-Hispanic Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native [AI/AN] children), children living at or above poverty (3.5-22 percentage points higher than coverage for children living below the federal poverty level), privately insured children (2.4-38 percentage points higher than coverage for children with Medicaid, other insurance, or no insurance), and children in urban areas (3-16.5 percentage points higher than coverage for children living in rural areas). Coverage with the full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine was lower among AI/AN children compared with White children. Trends in vaccination coverage disparities across categories of race and ethnicity, health insurance status, poverty status, and urbanicity were evaluated for the 2016-2020 birth cohorts. Fewer than 5% of 168 trends examined were statistically significant, including six increases (widening of the coverage gap) and one decrease (narrowing of the gap). Analyses revealed a widening of the gap between children living at or above the poverty level (higher coverage) and those living below poverty (lower coverage), for several vaccines. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic disparities in vaccination coverage persist; addressing them is important to ensure protection for all children against vaccine-preventable disease.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Ethnicity
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Infant
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vaccination Coverage*
  • Vaccination*
  • Vaccines, Conjugate


  • Vaccines, Conjugate