Stable isotope tracers are a powerful tool for the quantitative analysis of microbial metabolism, enabling pathway elucidation, metabolic flux quantification, and assessment of reaction and pathway thermodynamics. 13C and 2H metabolic flux analysis commonly relies on isotopically labeled carbon substrates, such as glucose. However, the use of 2H-labeled nutrient substrates faces limitations due to their high cost and limited availability in comparison to 13C-tracers. Furthermore, isotope tracer studies in industrially relevant bacteria that metabolize complex substrates such as cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignocellulosic biomass, are challenging given the difficulty in obtaining these as isotopically labeled substrates. In this study, we examine the potential of deuterated water (2H2O) as an affordable, substrate-neutral isotope tracer for studying central carbon metabolism. We apply 2H2O labeling to investigate the reversibility of glycolytic reactions across three industrially relevant bacterial species -C. thermocellum, Z. mobilis, and E. coli-harboring distinct glycolytic pathways with unique thermodynamics. We demonstrate that 2H2O labeling recapitulates previous reversibility and thermodynamic findings obtained with established 13C and 2H labeled nutrient substrates. Furthermore, we exemplify the utility of this 2H2O labeling approach by applying it to high-substrate C. thermocellum fermentations -a setting in which the use of conventional tracers is impractical-thereby identifying the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase as a major bottleneck during high-substrate fermentations and unveiling critical insights that will steer future engineering efforts to enhance ethanol production in this cellulolytic organism. This study demonstrates the utility of deuterated water as a substrate-agnostic isotope tracer for examining flux and reversibility of central carbon metabolic reactions, which yields biological insights comparable to those obtained using costly 2H-labeled nutrient substrates.
Keywords: Acetivibrio thermocellus; Biofuels; Clostridium thermocellum; Deuterated water; Isotope tracers; Metabolic bottleneck; Metabolic flux analysis; Thermodynamics; Zymomonas mobilis.
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