Lung transplantation in pulmonary sarcoidosis

J Autoimmun. 2023 Nov 1:103135. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2023.103135. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology and variable clinical course. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is the most common presentation and accounts for most morbidity and mortality related to sarcoidosis. While sarcoidosis generally has good outcomes, few patients experience chronic disease. A minority of patients progress to a specific phenotype of sarcoidosis referred to advanced pulmonary sarcoidosis (APS) which includes advanced fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure, leading to high morbidity and mortality. In patients with advanced disease despite medical therapy, lung transplantation may be the last viable option for improvement in quality of life. Though post-transplant survival is similar to that of other end-stage lung diseases, it is imperative that patients are evaluated and referred early to transplant centers with experience in APS. A multidisciplinary approach and clinical experience are crucial in detecting the optimal timing of referral, initiating comprehensive transplantation evaluation and listing, discussing surgical approach, and managing perioperative and post-transplant care. This review article seeks to address these aspects of lung transplantation in APS.