Background: Bronchiectasis is a major respiratory complication in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and is associated with recurrent pulmonary infections. However, it is unclear whether other infections or non-infectious respiratory conditions are related to its development.
Objective: To identify respiratory comorbidities associated with bronchiectasis in patients with CVID.
Methods: A total of 1470 CVID patients enrolled in the USIDNET registry were included in a cross-sectional analysis. The primary outcome of our study was to determine the clinical characteristics and other respiratory conditions associated with respiratory comorbidities and physician-reported bronchiectasis.
Results: One hundred ninety-seven CVID patients were noted to have bronchiectasis (13.4%). Affected patients were significantly older than patients without bronchiectasis (median age 54 years vs. 49 years, p = 0.0004). These patients also had lower serum IgA (13 mg/dL IQR 60 mg/dL vs. 28.4 mg/dL IQR 66 mg/dL, p = 0.000). Notably, chronic rhinosinusitis (OR = 1.69 95%CI 1.05-2.75), sinusitis (OR = 2.06 95%CI 1.38-3.09), pneumonia (OR = 2.70 95%CI 1.88-3.88), COPD (OR = 2.66 95%CI 1.51-4.67), and interstitial lung disease (OR = 2.34 95%CI 1.41-3.91) were independently associated with the development of bronchiectasis in this population.
Conclusion: These data suggest that lower and upper respiratory infections, chronic lower airway disease, and interstitial lung diseases are independently associated with bronchiectasis in CVID patients. Further study into predisposing conditions related to the development of bronchiectasis in CVID patients may allow prediction and early intervention strategies to prevent the development of this complication.
Keywords: Antibody deficiency; Bronchiectasis; Common variable immunodeficiency; Inborn errors of immunity; Interstitial lung diseases; Pneumonia; Primary immunodeficiency diseases; Respiratory disease; Sinusitis.
© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.