Comparison of the efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided CHIVA and traditional HLS in the treatment of varicose veins of lower extremities - a meta-analysis

Medicine (Baltimore). 2023 Nov 3;102(44):e35442. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000035442.


Objective: Systematic evaluation of the efficacy and safety of conservative hemodynamic cure for venous insufficiency (CHIVA) compared with high ligation and stripping (HLS) in the treatment of varicose veins of lower extremities.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search and compared the randomized controlled trial and retrospective cohort study of CHIVA and HLS in the treatment of varicose veins of lower extremities in several databases, including China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database, cqvip datebase, PubMed, Cochrane library and EMBASE, to identify articles that might meet the criteria. Meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.3 and Stata 13.0 software.

Results: This Meta-analysis included a total of 14 research articles. This meta-analysis shows that CHIVA requires shorter operation time than HLS [mean difference (MD) = -13.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) (-21.05, -6.10), P = .0004]. There is less blood loss with CHIVA surgery [MD = -21.72, 95% CI (-30.35, -13.09), P < .00001]. The number of incisions made by the CHIVA technique is less [MD = -3.67, 95% CI (-4.03, -3.31), P < .00001]. Patients who underwent CHIVA had a shorter hospital stay [MD = -3.40, 95% CI (-4.72, -2.09), P < .00001]. The relapse rate was lower after CHIVA [OR = 0.36, 95% CI (0.18, 0.70), P = .003]. In terms of postoperative complications, CHIVA has a lower total complication rate [MD = 0.26, 95% CI (0.15, 0.46), P < .00001]. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was lower after CHIVA [MD = 0.23, 95% CI (0.06, 0.92), P = .04]. CHIVA has a lower incidence of sensory disturbance than HLS [OR = 0.39, 95% CI (0.25, 0.60), P < .0001]. CHIVA technique has less nerve injury rate than HLS [OR = 0.11, 95% CI (0.02, 0.62), P = .01]. The incidence of hematoma was lower after CHIVA [OR = 0.48, 95% CI (0.27, 0.87), P = .02]. Among other metrics, the comparison results of the 2 techniques were similar.

Conclusion: By comparison, it is found that CHIVA has shorter operation time, less blood loss, and fewer surgical incisions. Patients who underwent CHIVA surgery had shorter hospital stays and lower relapse rates. In terms of complications, the incidence of total complications after CHIVA is lower, and the incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis, postoperative sensory, nerve injury, and postoperative hematoma is also lower than that of HLS.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Hematoma
  • Humans
  • Lower Extremity
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • Varicose Veins* / surgery
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Venous Thrombosis*