To evaluate the effect of a 9-week interval training program on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, and indices of anaerobic threshold of preadolescent boys, 28 10.2- to 11.6-year-old boys were tested. The test included laboratory evaluation of anaerobic capacity (Wingate anaerobic test) and evaluation of VO2 max and anaerobic threshold indices from a graded exercise test and measurement of blood lactate. The tests also included a 1200-m run to investigate the relationship of laboratory fitness indices, VO2 max, anaerobic threshold indices, and indices of anaerobic capacity to the performance of the run. It was found that in 10- to 11-year-old boys, a 9-week interval training increased the indices of anaerobic capacity: mean power by 10% and peak power by 14%. No change was found in percent fatigue. The training also increased VO2 max by 7% in absolute terms and by 8%/kg body weight. A significant increase was also found in the running velocity at the anaerobic threshold (running velocity at inflection point of lactate accumulation curve), but in relative terms (percent of VO2 max), the anaerobic threshold decreased by approximately 4.4%. It is concluded that proper training may improve maximal aerobic power and anaerobic capacity of preadolescent boys. It is also concluded that anaerobic threshold measures are less sensitive to the training regimen than VO2 max and that the 1200-m running performance is strongly associated with both aerobic and anaerobic capacities and less with the anaerobic threshold, which in preadolescent boys seems to be higher than in adults.