Multiphase Chemistry under Nanoconfinement: An Electrochemical Perspective

J Am Chem Soc. 2023 Nov 22;145(46):25043-25055. doi: 10.1021/jacs.3c07374. Epub 2023 Nov 7.


Most relevant systems of interest to modern chemists rarely consist of a single phase. Real-world problems that require a rigorous understanding of chemical reactivity in multiple phases include the development of wearable and implantable biosensors, efficient fuel cells, single cell metabolic characterization techniques, and solar energy conversion devices. Within all of these systems, confinement effects at the nanoscale influence the chemical reaction coordinate. Thus, a fundamental understanding of the nanoconfinement effects of chemistry in multiphase environments is paramount. Electrochemistry is inherently a multiphase measurement tool reporting on a charged species traversing a phase boundary. Over the past 50 years, electrochemistry has witnessed astounding growth. Subpicoampere current measurements are routine, as is the study of single molecules and nanoparticles. This Perspective focuses on three nanoelectrochemical techniques to study multiphase chemistry under nanoconfinement: stochastic collision electrochemistry, single nanodroplet electrochemistry, and nanopore electrochemistry.

Publication types

  • Review