From November 1973 through July 1982, 225 women with Stage I or II uterine sarcoma were entered on a protocol which evaluated the use of doxorubicin in the adjuvant setting. Of these, 157 patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Following complete surgical removal of all known clinical disease, consenting patients were randomized to receive either 60 mg/m2 of doxorubicin every 3 weeks for eight courses or no further therapy. The use of radiation therapy in this protocol was optional, and a review of protocol cases was undertaken to determine progression-free interval, survival rates, and site of first recurrence in the radiation therapy and no radiation therapy groups. In patients with Stage I or II leiomyosarcoma of the uterus, there was no difference in the progression-free interval, absolute two-year survival rate, or site of first recurrence in the two groups. There was no difference in the progression-free interval or absolute survival rates for cases with Stage I and II uterine mixed mesodermal sarcomas in the two treatment groups. However, those who received radiation therapy to the pelvis experienced a statistically significant reduction of recurrences within the radiation treatment field.