Potential of milk-derived bioactive peptides as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and xanthine oxidase inhibitors: a comprehensive bibliometric analysis and updated review

Amino Acids. 2023 Dec;55(12):1829-1855. doi: 10.1007/s00726-023-03351-9. Epub 2023 Nov 8.


Bioactive peptides consist of small protein fragments, which are inactive in their original conformation, and they become active when released from these through enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation processes. The bioactivity of such peptides has been extensively reported in the literature as contributors to organic homeostasis processes, as well as in immunomodulation, organism defense against oxidative processes, among others. In this study, reports of the activity of BPs isolated from milk with the potential glycemic control, antihypertensive activity, and inhibitors of uric acid formation were compiled. A systematic literature review and bibliometric analysis were conducted, using the PICO strategy for the research. The temporal analysis of publications revealed a growing interest in the investigation of bioactive peptides with potential antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities, using dairy sources as products for their extraction. The literature analysis also revealed an increase in research involving non-bovine dairy products for bioactive peptide extraction. The collaboration network among authors exhibited weaknesses in scientific cooperation. Regarding the analysis of keywords, the usage of terms such as "bioactive peptides", "antioxidant", "antihypertensive", and "diabetes" was evident, constituting the main research clusters. Peptides with low molecular weight, typically < 10 kDa, of hydrophobic nature with aliphatic and aromatic chains, have significant implications in molecular interactions for the required activities. Although there is a growing interest in the industry regarding the utilization of bioactive peptides as potential drugs, there is a need to address gaps related to elucidating their interactions with cellular targets and their use in human therapy.

Keywords: Antidiabetic; Antihypertensive; Bioactive peptides; Milk; State of the art; Xanthine oxidase.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents* / pharmacology
  • Antihypertensive Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Milk* / chemistry
  • Peptides / chemistry
  • Peptides / pharmacology
  • Peptides / therapeutic use
  • Xanthine Oxidase


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Xanthine Oxidase
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Peptides
  • Enzyme Inhibitors