Exchange lists: revised 1986

J Am Diet Assoc. 1987 Jan;87(1):28-34.


A committee composed of members of The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association has revised Exchange List for Meal Planning. Changes were made, as deemed necessary, on the basis of nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes as understood in 1986. Major changes include rewriting the text to make it more useful in the education of persons with diabetes; changing the order of the exchange lists to emphasize a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet, as well as to better reflect the order of foods in menu planning; adding symbols to foods high in fiber and sodium; changing nutritive values for the starch/bread and fruit lists; adding lists of combination foods, free foods, and foods recommended only for occasional use; developing a data base; and initiating a plan for field testing and evaluation. The committee also developed a simplified meal planning tool, Healthy Food Choices, to be used for initial or "survival" level education. In poster format, foods are grouped by calories into six food groups. Approximate portion sizes of commonly used foods are listed. Blank lines are provided for the nutrition counselor to write in a suggested menu or meal plan for the client. Because the booklet does not use the word "diabetes" specifically, it is appropriate as a general teaching tool.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus / diet therapy*
  • Diet*
  • Humans
  • Information Systems
  • Menu Planning
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Nutritional Sciences / education
  • Nutritional Sciences / standards*
  • Patient Education as Topic