Costs associated with invasive Scedosporium and Lomentospora prolificans infections: a case-control study

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2024 Jan 3;79(1):46-54. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkad345.


Background: Little is known about the short- and long-term healthcare costs of invasive Scedosporium/Lomentospora prolificans infections, particularly in patient groups without haematological malignancy. This study investigated excess index hospitalization costs and cumulative costs of these infections. The predictors of excess cost and length of stay (LOS) of index hospitalization were determined. These estimates serve as valuable inputs for cost-effectiveness models of novel antifungal agents.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at six Australian hospitals. Cases of proven/probable invasive Scedosporium/L. prolificans infections between 2011 and 2021 (n = 34) were matched with controls (n = 66) by predefined criteria. Cost data were retrieved from activity-based costing systems and analysis was performed from the Australian public hospital perspective. All costs were presented in 2022 Australian dollars (AUD). Median regression analysis was used to adjust excess costs of index hospitalization whereas cumulative costs up to 1.5 years follow-up were estimated using interval-partitioned survival probabilities.

Results: Invasive Scedosporium/L. prolificans infections were independently associated with an adjusted median excess cost of AUD36 422 (P = 0.003) and LOS of 16.27 days (P < 0.001) during index hospitalization. Inpatient stay was the major cost driver (42.7%), followed by pharmacy cost, of which antifungal agents comprised 23.8% of the total cost. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant increased the excess cost (P = 0.013) and prolonged LOS (P < 0.001) whereas inpatient death within ≤28 days reduced both cost (P = 0.001) and LOS (P < 0.001). The median cumulative cost increased substantially to AUD203 292 over 1.5 years in cases with Scedosporium/L. prolificans infections.

Conclusions: The economic burden associated with invasive Scedosporium/L. prolificans infections is substantial.

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Australia / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scedosporium*


  • Antifungal Agents

Supplementary concepts

  • scedosporiosis

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