Post-Transplant Management and Complications of Autoimmune Hepatitis, Primary Biliary Cholangitis, and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis including Disease Recurrence

Clin Liver Dis. 2024 Feb;28(1):193-207. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2023.07.009. Epub 2023 Aug 26.


Autoimmune liver diseases have unique post-transplant considerations. These recipients are at increased risk of rejection, and recurrent disease may also develop, which can progress to graft loss and increase mortality. Monitoring for and managing these complications is therefore important, though data on associated risk factors and immunosuppression strategies has in most cases been mixed. There are also other disease-specific complications that require management and may impact these decisions, including inflammatory bowel disease in PSC. Further work to better understand the optimal management strategies for these patients post-transplant is needed.

Keywords: Autoimmune hepatitis; Immunosuppression; Liver transplantation; Primary biliary cholangitis; Primary sclerosing cholangitis; Recurrent disease; Rejection.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing* / complications
  • Cholangitis, Sclerosing* / surgery
  • Hepatitis, Autoimmune* / complications
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppression Therapy / adverse effects
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary* / etiology
  • Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary* / surgery
  • Liver Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Recurrence