Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: dental and maxillofacial phenotype - A scoping review

Bone. 2024 Feb:179:116955. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2023.116955. Epub 2023 Nov 10.


Introduction: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a heterogeneous group of disorders associated with decreased fetal movement, with a prevalence between 1/3000 and 1/5200 live births. Typical features of AMC include multiple joint contractures present at birth, and can affect all joints of the body, from the jaw, and involving the upper limbs, lower limbs and spine. The jaws may be affected in 25 % of individuals with AMC, with limited jaw movement and mouth opening. Other oral and maxillofacial deformities may be present in AMC, including cleft palate, micrognathia, periodontitis and delayed teething. To our knowledge, oral and maxillofacial abnormalities have not been systematically assessed in individuals with AMC. Therefore, this scoping review was conducted to identify, collect, and describe a comprehensive map of the existing knowledge on dental and maxillofacial involvement in individuals with AMC.

Methodology: A scoping review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines. The PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews were followed and databases were searched for empirical articles in English and French published until October 2022. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and ERIC databases. Two authors independently reviewed the articles and extracted the data.

Results: Of a total of 997 studies that were identified, 96 met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently included in this scoping review. These 96 studies collectively provided insights into 167 patients who exhibited some form of oral and/or maxillofacial involvement. Notably, 25 % of these patients were within the age range of 0-6 months. It is worth highlighting that only 22 out of the 96 studies (22.9 %), had the primary objective of evaluating dental and/or maxillofacial deformities. Among the patients studied, a prevalent pattern emerged, revealing that severe anomalies such as micrognathia (56 %), high-arched palate (29 %), cleft palate (40 %), limited mouth opening (31 %), and dental anomalies (28 %) were frequently observed. Importantly, many of these patients were found to have more than one of these anomalies. Even though these maxillofacial impairments are known to be associated with dental problems (e.g., cleft palate is associated with oligodontia, hypodontia, and malocclusion), their secondary effects on the dental phenotype were not reported in the studies.

Conclusion: Our findings have uncovered a notable deficiency in existing literature concerning dental and maxillofacial manifestations in AMC. This underscores the need for interdisciplinary collaboration and the undertaking of extensive prospective cohort studies focused on AMC. These studies should assess the oral and maxillofacial abnormalities that can impact daily functioning and overall quality of life.

Keywords: Anomalies; Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita; Dental; High arch palate; Limited mouth opening; Malformation; Maxillofacial; Micrognathia.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arthrogryposis* / complications
  • Arthrogryposis* / epidemiology
  • Arthrogryposis* / genetics
  • Cleft Palate* / complications
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Micrognathism* / complications
  • Prospective Studies
  • Quality of Life