Low non-relapse mortality and good haematological and renal responses after autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma patients with renal insufficiency at transplant: A prospective Société Francophone de Greffe de Moelle-Thérapie Cellulaire observational study

Br J Haematol. 2023 Nov 12. doi: 10.1111/bjh.19163. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

High-dose melphalan followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is widely used in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients as upfront therapy. However, the safety and efficacy of transplantation in patients with renal insufficiency (RI) are controversial. We followed a multicentre (16 SFGM-TC centres) prospective cohort of 50 newly diagnosed MM patients with a serum creatinine clearance of <40 mL/min at transplantation. Patients received a recommended dose of melphalan of 140 mg/m2 . The primary end-point was the non-relapse mortality at Day 100. One death occurred during the first 100 days post-transplant. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days and to platelet engraftment was 13 days. The haematological response improved in 69% of patients, with best responses from partial response (PR) to very good partial response (VGPR) (10%), from PR to complete response (CR)/stringent complete response (sCR) (16%), from VGPR to CR/sCR (39%) and from CR to sCR (2%). At 2 years, the overall survival was 84%, the progression-free survival was 70% and the cumulative incidence of relapse was 20%. The renal response improved in 59% of patients, with the best renal responses post-transplant being minimal (9%), partial (2%) and complete (48%). Autologous transplantation was safe and effective in myeloma patients with RI at transplant.

Keywords: myeloma; renal failure; transplantation.