The global incidence of chikungunya has surged in recent decades, with South America, particularly Brazil, experiencing devastating outbreaks. The primary vector for transmitting CHIKV in urban areas is the mosquito species Aedes aegypti, which is very abundant in Brazil. However, little is known about the impact of locally circulating CHIKV genotypes and specific combinations of mosquito populations on vector competence. In this study, we analyzed and compared the infectivity and transmissibility of a recently isolated CHIKV-ECSA lineage from Brazil among four Ae. aegypti populations collected from different regions of the country. When exposed to CHIKV-infected mice for blood feeding, all mosquito populations showed high infection rates and dissemination efficiency. Moreover, using a mouse model to assess transmission rates in a manner that better mirrors natural cycles, we observed that these populations exhibit highly efficient transmission rates of CHIKV-ECSA. Our findings underscore the robust capability of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to transmit the locally circulating CHIKV-ECSA lineage, potentially explaining its higher prevalence compared to the Asian lineage also introduced in Brazil.