Influenza vaccine effectiveness against hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infection

medRxiv [Preprint]. 2023 Oct 31:2023.10.27.23297682. doi: 10.1101/2023.10.27.23297682.


Background: Some studies conducted before the Delta and Omicron variant-dominant periods have indicated that influenza vaccination provided protection against COVID-19 infection or hospitalization, but these results were limited by small study cohorts and a lack of comprehensive data on patient characteristics. No studies have examined this question during the Delta and Omicron periods (08/01/2021 to 2/22/2022).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of influenza-vaccinated and unvaccinated patients in the Corewell Health East(CHE, formerly known as Beaumont Health), Corewell Health West(CHW, formerly known as Spectrum Health) and Michigan Medicine (MM) healthcare system during the Delta-dominant and Omicron-dominant periods. We used a test-negative, case-control analysis to assess the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine against hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 outcome in adults, while controlling for individual characteristics as well as pandameic severity and waning immunity of COVID-19 vaccine.

Results: The influenza vaccination has shown to provided some protection against SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized outcome across three main healthcare systems. CHE site (odds ratio [OR]=0.73, vaccine effectiveness [VE]=27%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [18-35], p<0.001), CHW site (OR=0.85, VE=15%, 95% CI: [6-24], p<0.001), MM (OR=0.50, VE=50%, 95% CI: [40-58], p <0.001) and overall (OR=0.75, VE=25%, 95% CI: [20-30], p <0.001).

Conclusion: The influenza vaccine provides a small degree of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection across our study sites.

Publication types

  • Preprint