Burden and associated phenotypic characteristics of tuberculosis infection in adult Africans with diabetes: a systematic review

Sci Rep. 2023 Nov 14;13(1):19894. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-47285-4.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of developing tuberculosis infection (TBI). However, the evidence on the burden and phenotypic characteristics of TBI in African patients with DM is limited. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characterisation of TBI in native African patients living with DM. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and African Journals Online for original studies reporting information on the prevalence and characteristics of TBI in adult Africans with DM. A forest plot was used to describe the pooled prevalence estimate of TBI and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Six studies conducted in four African countries involving 721 participants with DM were included in this systematic review. The pooled prevalence estimate of TBI was 40% (95% CI 20-60%, I2 = 98.52%, p < 0.001). Age ≥ 40 years and glycated haemoglobin levels independently predicted TBI positivity in patients with DM in three studies. Africans with DM have a high prevalence of TBI, especially those who are older or with poorly controlled diabetes. This justifies the need for studies to explore how to screen and manage TBI to avert the progression to active TB disease.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Africa / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Latent Tuberculosis* / complications
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Tuberculosis* / complications
  • Tuberculosis* / epidemiology