Effectiveness of probiotics compared to antibiotics to treat periodontal disease: Systematic review

Oral Dis. 2023 Nov 14. doi: 10.1111/odi.14781. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objectives: Probiotics are promising adjuncts to non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing (SRP)) for managing gingival and periodontal diseases. Probiotics are considered alternatives to antibiotics, especially with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Hence, the present systematic review aims to generate evidence on the role of probiotics compared to antimicrobial agents for managing periodontal diseases (gingivitis and periodontitis).

Method: Six electronic databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, EBSCO, Cochrane, Clinical Trial Registry) were searched to collect studies comparing the effect of probiotics with antibiotics for periodontal disease. In total, 5530 articles were retrieved from all databases, of which 1891 were included for title and abstract screening. After screening, a total of ten clinical studies were included for data extraction and analysis. Probing pocket depth (PPD), Clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and microbial profile were recorded.

Results: Probiotics showed a significant reduction in the PPD and CAL compared to antibiotics. Antibiotics were more effective in reducing the PI and GI. A combination of probiotics and antibiotics superior compared to probiotics and antibiotics alone.

Conclusion: Probiotics can be used as an alternative to antibiotics, however, a combination is more effective for managing periodontal disease.

Keywords: antibiotics; antimicrobial resistance; gingivitis antimicrobial agents; oral health; periodontal disease; periodontal therapy; periodontitis; probiotics.

Publication types

  • Review