Pueraria lobata-derived exosome-like nanovesicles alleviate osteoporosis by enhacning autophagy

J Control Release. 2023 Dec:364:644-653. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2023.11.020. Epub 2023 Nov 16.


Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common bone disorder worldwide, especially in postmenopausal women. However, many OP drugs are not suitable for long term use due to major adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify more effective and safe therapeutic drugs. Pueraria lobata has been reported to promote osteoblast growth in bone regeneration, but the exact mechanisms still need further exploration. The current study found that Pueraria lobata-derived exosome-like nanovesicles (PELNs) promoting primary human bone mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) differentiation and mineralization both in vitro and in ovariectomized (OVX)-induced osteoporotic rats. Interestingly, the relative abundance of harmful strains significantly decreased in the intestine of the osteoporosis SD rat model administrated PELNs via the regulation of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a metabolite of gut microbiota. Moreover, RNA sequencing revealed that the osteogenic activity of PELNs is revealed to autophagy signaling. In vitro and in vivo experiments also showed that the treatment with PELNs promoted the differentiation and function of hBMSCs by elevating autophagy via the degradation of TMAO. Collectively, PELNs demonstrate promise as a therapeutic approach for OP, with TMAO emerging as a potential target of OP treatment.

Keywords: Autophagy; Gut microbiota; Osteoporosis; Pueraria lobata-derived exosome-like nanovesicles; TMAO.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autophagy
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Exosomes* / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Osteogenesis
  • Osteoporosis* / drug therapy
  • Osteoporosis* / metabolism
  • Pueraria*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • trimethyloxamine