Biocompatibility of bulk-fill resins in vitro

Clin Oral Investig. 2023 Dec;27(12):7851-7858. doi: 10.1007/s00784-023-05376-6. Epub 2023 Nov 15.


Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three different extracts obtained from Filtek™ One Bulk Fill, Tetric Evoceram® Bulk Fill and Coltene Fill-Up! resins.

Materials and methods: The cytotoxicity was determined on 3T3 fibroblast cells using the MTT and crystal violet assays. The genotoxicity was determined using a cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.

Results: The cytotoxicity of the resin extracts on 3T3 mouse fibroblasts was found to be dose-dependent with both the MTT and crystal violet assays. Extracts concentrated above 1% were cytotoxic according to the MTT assay. The Filtek™ One Bulk Fill, Tetric Evoceram® Bulk Fill, and Coltene Fill-Up! resins reached the LD50 at concentrations of 60%, 50%, and 20%, respectively, and showed genotoxicity rates that were 2-5 times, 3-8 times, and 4-15 times higher than the negative control, respectively.

Conclusions: Coltene Fill-Up! resin extracts were the most cytotoxic and genotoxic, followed by Tetric Evoceram® Bulk Fill and Filtek™ One Bulk Fill.

Clinical relevance: The analyzed bulk-fill resins showed differences in in vitro biocompatibility, and the Filtek™ One Bulk Fill was found to be the safest for clinical use.

Keywords: Bulk fill; Crystal violet assay; Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay; MTT assay.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Composite Resins* / chemistry
  • Composite Resins* / toxicity
  • Dental Materials
  • Gentian Violet*
  • Materials Testing
  • Mice


  • Gentian Violet
  • Composite Resins
  • Dental Materials