Factor XI Inhibition for the Prevention of Catheter-Associated Thrombosis in Patients With Cancer Undergoing Central Line Placement: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2024 Jan;44(1):290-299. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.123.319692. Epub 2023 Nov 16.


Background: Despite the ubiquitous utilization of central venous catheters in clinical practice, their use commonly provokes thromboembolism. No prophylactic strategy has shown sufficient efficacy to justify routine use. Coagulation factors FXI (factor XI) and FXII (factor XII) represent novel targets for device-associated thrombosis, which may mitigate bleeding risk. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an anti-FXI mAb (monoclonal antibody), gruticibart (AB023), in a prospective, single-arm study of patients with cancer receiving central line placement.

Methods: We enrolled ambulatory cancer patients undergoing central line placement to receive a single dose of gruticibart (2 mg/kg) administered through the venous catheter within 24 hours of placement and a follow-up surveillance ultrasound at day 14 for evaluation of catheter thrombosis. A parallel, noninterventional study was used as a comparator.

Results: In total, 22 subjects (n=11 per study) were enrolled. The overall incidence of catheter-associated thrombosis was 12.5% in the interventional study and 40.0% in the control study. The anti-FXI mAb, gruticibart, significantly prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time in all subjects on day 14 compared with baseline (P<0.001). Gruticibart was well tolerated and without infusion reactions, drug-related adverse events, or clinically relevant bleeding. Platelet flow cytometry demonstrated no difference in platelet activation following administration of gruticibart. T (thrombin)-AT (antithrombin) and activated FXI-AT complexes increased following central line placement in the control study, which was not demonstrated in our intervention study. CRP (C-reactive protein) did not significantly increase on day 14 in those who received gruticibart, but it did significantly increase in the noninterventional study.

Conclusions: FXI inhibition with gruticibart was well tolerated without any significant adverse or bleeding-related events and resulted in a lower incidence of catheter-associated thrombosis on surveillance ultrasound compared with the published literature and our internal control study. These findings suggest that targeting FXI could represent a safe intervention to prevent catheter thrombosis.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04465760.

Keywords: factor XI; follow-up studies; neoplasms; thromboembolism; thrombosis.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Catheters / adverse effects
  • Factor XI / metabolism
  • Hemorrhage / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / complications
  • Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Thrombosis* / drug therapy
  • Thrombosis* / etiology
  • Thrombosis* / prevention & control


  • Factor XI

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT04465760