Background and objectives: The therapeutic strategy for inflammation and degenerative calcification is of utmost importance for bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) implanted patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory and anti-calcification effects of Entelon150® (grape seed extract), losartan, and rosuvastatin, in a rabbit model of intravascular BHV leaflet implantation in bovine pericardium.
Methods: A total of 28 rabbits were implanted with BHV leaflet in the external jugular veins. The Entelon150® group was administered 7.7 mg/kg Entelon150® twice daily for 6 weeks after surgery. The losartan and rosuvastatin groups received 5.14 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively, once per day. The control group received 1 ml of saline once daily. And then, calcium concentration was measured in the implanted BHV, and histological and molecular analyses were performed on the surrounding tissues.
Results: The calcium content of the implanted tissue in the Entelon150® group (0.013±0.004 mg/g) was lower than that in the control group (0.066±0.039 mg/g) (p=0.008). The losartan (0.024±0.016 mg/g, p=0.032) and rosuvastatin (0.022±0.011 mg/g, p=0.032) groups had lower calcium content than the control group, and higher tendency than the Entelon150® group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the expressions of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2), S-100, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the Entelon150® group showed lower tendency than those in the control group. The protein expression levels of BMP2 were reduced in the Entelon150® group compared with those in the control group.
Conclusions: Entelon150® exhibited a significant effect, similar to other drugs, in reducing calcification and inflammation in the intravascular bovine pericardium.
Keywords: Heart valve prosthesis, Inflammation; Rosuvastatin; Vascular calcification, Losartan; Vitis vinifera.
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