Beta-blocker and calcium-channel blocker toxicity: current evidence on evaluation and management

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2024 Feb 16;13(2):247-253. doi: 10.1093/ehjacc/zuad138.


Beta-blocker and calcium-channel blocker overdoses are associated with severe morbidity and mortality; therefore, it is important to recognize and appropriately treat individuals with toxicity. The most common clinical findings in toxicity are bradycardia and hypotension. In addition to supportive care and cardiac monitoring, specific treatment includes administration of calcium salts, vasopressors, and high-dose insulin euglycaemia treatment. Other advanced treatments (e.g. ECMO) may be indicated depending on the severity of toxicity and specific agents involved.

Keywords: Beta-blocker; Calcium-channel blocker; Cardiovascular drug toxicity; Overdose; Toxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Calcium Channel Blockers*
  • Calcium*
  • Humans
  • Vasoconstrictor Agents


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Calcium
  • Vasoconstrictor Agents
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists