NLRP3 Inflammasome: An Emerging Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease

J Alzheimers Dis. 2023;96(4):1383-1398. doi: 10.3233/JAD-230567.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is currently the most prevalent neurological disease, and no effective and practical treatments and therapies exist. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat-, and pyrin domain- containing receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is vital in the human innate immune response. However, when the NLRP3 inflammasome is overactivated by persistent stimulation, several immune-related diseases, including AD, atherosclerosis, and obesity, result. This review will focus on the composition and activation mechanism of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the relevant mechanisms of involvement in the inflammatory response to AD, and AD treatment targeting NLRP3 inflammasome. This review aims to reveal the pathophysiological mechanism of AD from a new perspective and provide the possibility of more effective and novel strategies for preventing and treating AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; NLRP3 inflammasome; amyloid-β; inhibitors; tau; treatment.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / drug therapy
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Humans
  • Inflammasomes* / metabolism
  • NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein / metabolism


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Inflammasomes
  • NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein
  • NLRP3 protein, human