Current evidence posits a central role for gut microbiota and the metabolome in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as a means to manipulate this microbiome safely and sustainably. Several aspects of the technical improvement including pretreatment with antibiotics, use of frozen stool samples as well as short donor-to-recipient time are proposed to improve its response rates. Its efficacy in ulcerative colitis has been proven in clinical trials while data is emerging for Crohn's disease. This review describes briefly the biology behind FMT, the available evidence for its use in IBD, and the host, recipient and procedural factors which determine the clinical outcomes.
Keywords: Fecal microbiota transplantation; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Microbiome manipulation therapy; Microbiota.