Exploring the burden of mixed dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study in Kashmir, India

Am J Hum Biol. 2023 Nov 19:e24012. doi: 10.1002/ajhb.24012. Online ahead of print.


Background: Diabetes-related dyslipidemia is a multifaceted, complicated disorder characterized by an abnormal lipid profile in individuals with diabetes. The incidence of different types of dyslipidemia, however, was not a focus of prior investigations. The patients were characterized into three categories of dyslipidemia. Different patterns of dyslipidemia were combined into single dyslipidemia (7 patterns), mixed dyslipidemia (16 patterns), and triple dyslipidemia (4 patterns).

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 586 people suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included. We assessed the serum lipid profile and used log (TG/HDL-C) to determine the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Dyslipidemia was examined as a categorical variable, and the findings were presented as percentages and numbers. To compare categorical variables, we either utilized Fisher exact tests or Chi square tests.

Results: The study comprised of 586 T2DM patients, with 310 (52.9%) women and 276 (47.1%) men. Women have significantly higher hypertension (33.6%) as compared to men (23.2%). 18.94% (111) of patients were having coronary artery disease (CAD) history consisting of 12.28% (72) females and 6.66% (39) males, a difference which is statistically significant. 98.12% of total individuals had as a minimum of one lipid abnormality. 4.61% (27) of study subjects were having isolated dyslipidemia and 93.51% (548) had dual or triple pattern of dyslipidemia (mixed dyslipidemia). High AIP >0.24 (94.8%) was the most predominant trend of dyslipidemia. The dual combination of AIP (>0.24) and HDL (<50 mg/dL in Females and <40 mg/dL in Males) was found to be the most common pattern of mixed dyslipidemia (68.08%). The most prevalent trend of isolated dyslipidemia was found to be high AIP (>0.24), In patients with CAD history. Among the mixed dyslipidemia, the common pattern of dyslipidemia (71.17%) was the dual combination of high AIP (>0.24) and low HDL (<50 mg/dL women and <40 mg/dL males). The triple combination of TG (≥200 mg/dL) and HDL (<40 and <50 mg/dL) and LDL (≥100 mg/dL) was only found in females.

Conclusion: In conclusion, dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in T2DM patients, with mixed dyslipidemia being the most common type observed in the community of Kashmir valley, India. High AIP was the most prevalent pattern in the current investigation.