Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management

Clin Res Cardiol. 2023 Nov 20. doi: 10.1007/s00392-023-02328-8. Online ahead of print.


Since the first description of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM) in 1976, contrasting information from all over the world has emerged regarding the natural history of the disease. However, the recommended guidelines on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) pay a cursory reference to ApHCM, without ApHCM-specific recommendations to guide the diagnosis and management. In addition, cardiologists may not be aware of certain aspects that are specific to this disease subtype, and a robust understanding of specific disease features can facilitate recognition and timely diagnosis. Therefore, the review covers the incidence, pathogenesis, and characteristics of ApHCM and imaging methods. Echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are the most commonly used imaging methods. Moreover, this review presents the management strategies of this heterogeneous clinical entity. In this review, we introduce a novel transapical beating-heart septal myectomy procedure for ApHCM patients with a promising short-time result.

Keywords: Apical aneurysm; Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Midventricular obstruction and cavity obliteration; Septal myectomy.

Publication types

  • Review