Calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fracture, an extra-articular injury, is a rare fracture caused internally by Achilles tendon driven following intense contraction of gastrocnemius-soleus complex, and externally by low-energy (possibly high-energy). Moreover, the risk of injuries of the skin and Achilles tendon around calcaneal tuberosity is closely related to Lee classification and Carnero-Martín de Soto Classification of calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fracture. Although the diagnosis confirmed by X-ray, digital imaging and computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should also be used to evaluate soft tissue. In recent years, the understanding of this fracture has witnessed the development of different internal fixation devices and surgical procedures. These advances have been further elaborated scientifically in terms of their ability to provide stable fracture reduction ad resistance to Achilles tendon forces. In order to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the disease, this article reviewed the new understanding of the anatomy, typing, risk factors, and treatment modalities of calcaneal tuberosity avulsion fracture in recent years.
Keywords: Achilles tendon; Anatomy and histology; Avulsion fracture; Calcaneal tuberosity; Classification; Etiology; Fixation; Surgical approach.
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