Current status of indocyanine green fluorescent angiography in assessing perfusion of gastric conduit and oesophago-gastric anastomosis

Int J Surg. 2024 Feb 1;110(2):1079-1089. doi: 10.1097/JS9.0000000000000913.


Anastomotic leak (AL) remains a significant complication after esophagectomy. Indocyanine green fluorescent angiography (ICG-FA) is a promising and safe technique for assessing gastric conduit (GC) perfusion intraoperatively. It provides detailed visualization of tissue perfusion and has demonstrated usefulness in oesophageal surgery. GC perfusion analysis by ICG-FA is crucial in constructing the conduit and selecting the anastomotic site and enables surgeons to make necessary adjustments during surgery to potentially reduce ALs. However, anastomotic integrity involves multiple factors, and ICG-FA must be combined with optimization of patient and procedural factors to decrease AL rates. This review summarizes ICG-FA's current applications in assessing esophago-gastric anastomosis perfusion, including qualitative and quantitative analysis and different imaging systems. It also explores how fluorescent imaging could decrease ALs and aid clinicians in utilizing ICG-FA to improve esophagectomy outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anastomosis, Surgical / adverse effects
  • Anastomosis, Surgical / methods
  • Anastomotic Leak / diagnostic imaging
  • Anastomotic Leak / etiology
  • Angiography / adverse effects
  • Coloring Agents*
  • Esophagectomy / adverse effects
  • Esophagectomy / methods
  • Humans
  • Indocyanine Green*
  • Perfusion


  • Indocyanine Green
  • Coloring Agents