Predictive factors influencing internal rotation following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2024 May;33(5):1200-1208. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2023.10.006. Epub 2023 Nov 20.


Background: Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) is increasingly used as a treatment modality for various pathologies. The purpose of this review is to identify preoperative risk factors associated with loss of internal rotation (IR) after RTSA.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, and Scopus were queried. The inclusion criteria were as follows: articles in English language, minimum 1-year follow-up postoperatively, study published after 2012, a minimum of 10 patients in a series, RTSA surgery for any indication, and explicitly reported IR. The exclusion criteria were as follows: articles whose full text was unavailable or that were unable to be translated to English language, a follow-up of less than 1 year, case reports or series of less than 10 cases, review articles, studies in which tendon transfers were performed at the time of surgery, procedures that were not RTSA, and studies in which the range of motion in IR was not reported.

Results: The search yielded 3792 titles, and 1497 duplicate records were removed before screening. Ultimately, 16 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 5124 patients who underwent RTSA. Three studies found that poor preoperative functional IR served as a significant risk factor for poor postoperative IR. Eight studies addressed the impact of subscapularis, with 4 reporting no difference in IR based on subscapularis repair and 4 reporting significant improvements with subscapularis repair. Among studies with sufficient power, BMI was found to be inversely correlated with degree of IR after RTSA. Preoperative opioid use was found to negatively affect IR. Other studies showed that glenoid retroversion, component lateralization, and individualized component positioning affected postoperative IR.

Conclusions: This study found that preoperative IR, individualized implant version, preoperative opioid use, increased body mass index and increased glenoid lateralization were all found to have a significant impact on IR after RTSA. Studies that analyzed the impact of subscapularis repair reported conflicting results.

Keywords: RTSA; Reverse shoulder arthroplasty; internal rotation; range of motion; reverse shoulder prosthesis; reverse total shoulder arthroplasty; rotator cuff.

Publication types

  • Review