The analysis of the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with hereditary angioedema type I and type II

Sci Rep. 2023 Nov 22;13(1):20446. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-47307-1.


Due to the similarity between the pathomechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infections and hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), a possibility emerged that C1-INH-HAE may worsen the course of the infection, or that the infection may influence the severity of angioedema (HAE) attacks in C1-INH-HAE patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the quality of life (QoL) of Hungarian C1-INH-HAE patients, and to survey the acute course of the infection, post COVID symptoms (PCS), vaccination coverage and the side effects of vaccines in this patient population. 93 patients completed our questionnaire between 1st July 2021 and 31st October 2021. In this same period and between March 2019 and March 2020, 63 patients completed the angioedema quality of life questionnaire (AE-QoL). Out of those patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the examined period (18/93 patients; 19%), 5% required hospitalization, 28% experienced HAE attacks in the acute phase of the infection, and 44% experienced PCS. A total number of 142 doses of vaccines were administered to the patients. Serious vaccine reactions did not occur in any case, 4 (5%) out of the 73 vaccinated patients experienced HAE attacks. No significant difference (p = 0.59) was found in the median of the AE-QoL total score, or in the number of HAE attacks prior and during the pandemic. Based on our study, HAE patients did not experience more serious SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it did not aggravate the course of HAE either. Changes in the QoL were not significant, and vaccines were safe in HAE patients.

MeSH terms

  • Angioedema* / epidemiology
  • Angioedemas, Hereditary* / epidemiology
  • COVID-19* / epidemiology
  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein
  • Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II* / drug therapy
  • Hereditary Angioedema Types I and II* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Quality of Life
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vaccines* / therapeutic use


  • Complement C1 Inhibitor Protein
  • Vaccines