Constraints on Tsallis Cosmology from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Relic Abundance of Cold Dark Matter Particles

Entropy (Basel). 2023 Oct 29;25(11):1495. doi: 10.3390/e25111495.


By employing Tsallis' extensive but non-additive δ-entropy, we formulate the first two laws of thermodynamics for gravitating systems. By invoking Carathéodory's principle, we pay particular attention to the integrating factor for the heat one-form. We show that the latter factorizes into the product of thermal and entropic parts, where the entropic part cannot be reduced to a constant, as is the case in conventional thermodynamics, due to the non-additive nature of Sδ. The ensuing two laws of thermodynamics imply a Tsallis cosmology, which is then applied to a radiation-dominated universe to address the Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the relic abundance of cold dark matter particles. It is demonstrated that the Tsallis cosmology with the scaling exponent δ∼1.499 (or equivalently, the anomalous dimension Δ∼0.0013) consistently describes both the abundance of cold dark matter particles and the formation of primordial light elements, such as deuterium 2H and helium 4He. Salient issues, including the zeroth law of thermodynamics for the δ-entropy and the lithium 7Li problem, are also briefly discussed.

Keywords: Big Bang nucleosynthesis; Tsallis cosmology; cold dark matter; δ-entropy.

Grants and funding

P.J. was in part supported by the Ministry of education grant MŠMT RVO 14000.