Delamination Strength and Elastin Interlaminar Fibers Decrease with the Development of Aortic Dissection in Model Rats

Bioengineering (Basel). 2023 Nov 8;10(11):1292. doi: 10.3390/bioengineering10111292.


Aortic dissection (AD) is a life-threatening tear of the vascular tissue with creation of a false lumen. To explore the mechanism underlying this tissue tear, this study investigated the delamination strength of AD model rats and the histological composition of the aorta at various stages of AD development. SD rats were administrated beta-amino propionitrile for 0 (Control), 3 (Pre-dissection), and 6 (Dissection) weeks. The thoracic aorta was harvested at 10-11 weeks of age. The Dissection group exclusively showed AD at the ascending aorta. The delamination strength, a force that separates the aorta in the radial direction, of the descending aorta decreased significantly in the order of the Control, Pre-dissection, and Dissection groups. A quantitative histological analysis of the aortic tissue demonstrated that, compared with the Control group, the area fraction of collagen was significantly higher in the Pre-dissection and Dissection groups and that of elastin was significantly lower in the Dissection group. The area fraction of the elastin fibers between the elastic laminas (interlaminar fibers) was significantly decreased in the order of the Control, Pre-dissection, and Dissection groups. Histological changes of the aortic tissue, perhaps a reduction in interlaminar fibers mainly aligned in the radial direction, decreased delamination strength, thereby causing AD.

Keywords: BAPN; aortic dissection; collagen; delamination strength; elastin.