Prevalence and Characterization of Gastroenteritis Viruses among Hospitalized Children during a Pilot Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction in Vietnam

Viruses. 2023 Oct 27;15(11):2164. doi: 10.3390/v15112164.


Rotavirus (RV), norovirus (NoV), sapovirus (SaV), and human astrovirus (HAstV) are the most common viral causes of gastroenteritis in children worldwide. From 2016 to 2021, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to determine the prevalence of these viruses in hospitalized children under five years old in Nam Dinh and Thua Thien Hue provinces in Vietnam during the pilot introduction of the RV vaccine, Rotavin-M1 (POLYVAC, Hanoi, Vietnam). We randomly selected 2317/6718 (34%) acute diarrheal samples from children <5 years of age enrolled at seven sentinel hospitals from December 2016 to May 2021; this period included one year surveillance pre-vaccination from December 2016 to November 2017. An ELISA kit (Premier Rotaclone®, Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Cincinnati, OH, USA) was used to detect RV, and two multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays were used for the detection of NoV, SaV and HAstV. The prevalence of RV (single infection) was reduced from 41.6% to 22.7% (p < 0.0001) between pre- and post-vaccination periods, while the single NoV infection prevalence more than doubled from 8.8% to 21.8% (p < 0.0001). The SaV and HAstV prevalences slightly increased from 1.9% to 3.4% (p = 0.03) and 2.1% to 3.3% (p = 0.09), respectively, during the same period. Viral co-infections decreased from 7.2% to 6.0% (p = 0.24), mainly due to a reduction in RV infection. Among the genotypeable samples, NoV GII.4, SaV GI.1, and HAstV-1 were the dominant types, representing 57.3%, 32.1%, and 55.0% among the individual viral groups, respectively. As the prevalence of RV decreases following the national RV vaccine introduction in Vietnam, other viral pathogens account for a larger proportion of the remaining diarrhea burden and require continuing close monitoring.

Keywords: Rotavin-M1; Vietnam; astrovirus; gastroenteritis viruses; norovirus; rotavirus; rotavirus vaccine; sapovirus.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Hospitalized
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diarrhea / epidemiology
  • Diarrhea / prevention & control
  • Enteritis*
  • Enterovirus Infections*
  • Feces
  • Gastroenteritis* / epidemiology
  • Gastroenteritis* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Mamastrovirus*
  • Norovirus*
  • Prevalence
  • Rotavirus Vaccines*
  • Rotavirus* / genetics
  • Sapovirus*
  • Vietnam / epidemiology
  • Viruses*


  • Rotavirus Vaccines