Psoriasis is a common, chronic, and inflammatory skin disease with a high burden on individuals, health systems, and society worldwide. With the immunological pathologies and pathogenesis of psoriasis becoming gradually revealed, the therapeutic approaches for this disease have gained revolutionary progress. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of less common forms of psoriasis remain elusive. Furthermore, severe adverse effects and the recurrence of disease upon treatment cessation should be noted and addressed during the treatment, which, however, has been rarely explored with the integration of preliminary findings. Therefore, it is crucial to have a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms behind psoriasis pathogenesis, which might offer new insights for research and lead to more substantive progress in therapeutic approaches and expand clinical options for psoriasis treatment. In this review, we looked to briefly introduce the epidemiology, clinical subtypes, pathophysiology, and comorbidities of psoriasis and systematically discuss the signaling pathways involving extracellular cytokines and intracellular transmission, as well as the cross-talk between them. In the discussion, we also paid more attention to the potential metabolic and epigenetic mechanisms of psoriasis and the molecular mechanistic cascades related to its comorbidities. This review also outlined current treatment for psoriasis, especially targeted therapies and novel therapeutic strategies, as well as the potential mechanism of disease recurrence.
© 2023. The Author(s).