Twenty-four patients with osteochondral defects of a femoral condyle who failed to respond adequately to arthroscopic arthroplasty underwent osteochondral grafting with fresh allografts. Grafts were obtained from young donors and were matched according to skeletal size as measured by standard x-rays. Transplantation was performed within 12 h of harvesting. Follow-up extends from 2 to 4 years in 10 cases and is 1-2 years in the remaining 14. All ten patients with follow-up greater than 2 years were improved when evaluated in terms of pain, buckling, and swelling. Of the 24 patients, 11 have been evaluated arthroscopically following transplantation. In all 11 cases, the graft appeared viable. Fraying, if present, was limited to the margins of the graft in all except two cases. Collapse was not observed.