Tm4sf19 deficiency inhibits osteoclast multinucleation and prevents bone loss

Metabolism. 2024 Feb:151:155746. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2023.155746. Epub 2023 Nov 26.

Abstract

Background: Multinucleation is a hallmark of osteoclast formation and has a unique ability to resorb bone matrix. During osteoclast differentiation, the cytoskeleton reorganization results in the generation of actin belts and eventual bone resorption. Tetraspanins are involved in adhesion, migration and fusion in various cells. However, its function in osteoclast is still unclear. In this study, we identified Tm4sf19, a member of the tetraspanin family, as a regulator of osteoclast function.

Materials and methods: We investigate the effect of Tm4sf19 deficiency on osteoclast differentiation using bone marrow-derived macrophages obtained from wild type (WT), Tm4sf19 knockout (KO) and Tm4sf19 LELΔ mice lacking the large extracellular loop (LEL). We analyzed bone mass of young and aged WT, KO and LELΔ mice by μCT analysis. The effects of Tm4sf19 LEL-Fc fusion protein were accessed in osteoclast differentiation and osteoporosis animal model.

Results: We found that deficiency of Tm4sf19 inhibited osteoclast function and LEL of Tm4sf19 was responsible for its function in osteoclasts in vitro. KO and LELΔ mice exhibited higher trabecular bone mass compared to WT mice. We found that Tm4sf19 interacts with integrin αvβ3 through LEL, and that this binding is important for cytoskeletal rearrangements in osteoclast by regulating signaling downstream of integrin αvβ3. Treatment with LEL-Fc fusion protein inhibited osteoclast function in vitro and administration of LEL-Fc prevented bone loss in an osteoporosis mouse model in vivo.

Conclusion: We suggest that Tm4sf19 regulates osteoclast function and that LEL-Fc may be a promising drug to target bone destructive diseases caused by osteoclast hyper-differentiation.

Keywords: Bone; Integrin αvβ3; Osteoclast; Osteoporosis; Tm4sf19.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Diseases*
  • Bone Resorption* / genetics
  • Bone Resorption* / metabolism
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Integrin alphaVbeta3 / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Osteoclasts
  • Osteoporosis* / genetics
  • Osteoporosis* / metabolism
  • Tetraspanins* / genetics
  • Tetraspanins* / metabolism

Substances

  • Integrin alphaVbeta3
  • Tetraspanins