Skin manifestations in children with MIS-C and COVID-19: a narrative review

Int J Dermatol. 2024 Jan;63(1):32-40. doi: 10.1111/ijd.16912. Epub 2023 Nov 28.


This review aims to highlight the diverse skin manifestations in children and adolescents with COVID induced multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). The symptoms of COVID-19 can vary greatly in severity between different age groups. Although most children infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience either no symptoms or only mild symptoms, some reported cases of severely affected children with a clinical presentation similar to incomplete Kawasaki disease have led to the definition of a new condition called MIS-C. MIS-C can involve multiple organs, including the skin, and may pose a life-threatening risk to affected children. Such cases highlight the need for continuous research into the possible skin manifestations associated with COVID-19 in pediatric populations to aid in early diagnosis and prompt treatment. We conducted a search of PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases for studies published up until October 1, 2022. Three reviewers independently examined each study, and a fourth reviewer resolved any disagreements. A narrative review of all relevant papers was conducted. We present an overview of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the various skin manifestations in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. The skin manifestations of COVID-19 and MIS-C can be diverse and are frequently overlooked. It is important to conduct further research to better understand the impact of this disease on children to provide appropriate care for these at-risk populations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Child
  • Databases, Factual
  • Humans
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / etiology
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome / therapy

Supplementary concepts

  • pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease, COVID-19 related