Frameshift mutagens were isolated and concentrated from smokers' urine employing a method recently described. Urine concentrates of the habitual smokers and non-smokers who smoked cigarettes with low-, medium-, and high tar/nicotine yields, RCN (Reduced Condensate and Nicotine; artificial cigarettes containing cotobacco materials), black tobacco, and cigars were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Non-smokers who smoked 5 and habitual smokers who smoked 10 cigarettes of various tar and nicotine yields excreted more mutagens in urine with low-tar cigarettes than with medium- or high-tar cigarettes. Consuming more than 10 cigarettes a day resulted in a higher urinary excretion of mutagens with medium-tar cigarettes than with high-tar cigarettes. Smoking 5 RCN cigarettes a day by habitual smokers resulted in a higher urinary excretion of mutagens than smoking 5 commercial brand of cigarettes. In contrast, smoking 10 RCN cigarettes resulted in a lower urinary excretion of mutagens than smoking 10 commercial brand of cigarettes. The highest mutagenic activity was found with the urine of a habitual black tobacco smoker. Smoking cigars by non-smokers resulted in a very weak mutagenic activity of urine.