Cholera toxin transcriptional activator toxR is a transmembrane DNA binding protein

Cell. 1987 Jan 30;48(2):271-9. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90430-2.


The toxR gene encodes a transcriptional activator controlling cholera toxin, pilus, and outer-membrane protein expression in V. cholerae. Nucleotide sequence and mutational analysis has identified the toxR gene product as a 32,527 dalton protein. Hydropathicity analysis of the derived amino acid sequence of ToxR predicts a transmembrane structure. The properties of hybrid proteins composed of N-terminal fragments of ToxR fused to the periplasmic enzyme alkaline phosphatase provide additional evidence for the transmembrane topology of the ToxR protein. These fusion proteins also allowed the localization of the transcriptional activation and DNA binding domains of the ToxR protein to its cytoplasmically located N-terminal portion. DNA binding assays and a deletion analysis of the cholera toxin promoter support a model for transcriptional activation that involves ToxR binding to a tandemly repeated 7 bp DNA sequence 56 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • Cholera Toxin / genetics*
  • DNA, Bacterial / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Genes, Regulator*
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Vibrio cholerae / genetics*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cholera Toxin

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M15133
  • GENBANK/M21249
  • GENBANK/M21250