Exploring Methylene Blue and Its Derivatives in Alzheimer's Treatment: A Comprehensive Review of Randomized Control Trials

Cureus. 2023 Oct 9;15(10):e46732. doi: 10.7759/cureus.46732. eCollection 2023 Oct.


Methylene blue (MB) and its compounds are investigated for their potential benefits in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a widely seen neuropathological disorder characterized by the gradual decline of cognitive abilities, ultimately leading to the development of severe dementia. It is anticipated that there will be a significant increase in the prevalence of AD due to the aging population. Histopathologically, AD is distinguished by the presence of intracellular tangles of neurofibrillary tissues (NFTs) and extracellular amyloid plaques within the brain. MB is a thiophenazine dye with FDA approval for treating several illnesses. Its ease in crossing the blood-brain barrier and potential therapeutic use in central nervous system diseases have increased interest in its application for treating AD. The literature review includes randomized clinical trials investigating MB's potential benefits in treating AD. The findings of the studies indicate that the administration of MB has demonstrated enhancements in cognitive function, reductions in the accumulation of plaques containing beta-amyloid, improvements in memory and cognitive function in animal subjects, and possesses antioxidant properties that can mitigate oxidative stress and inflammation within the brain. This review evaluates the modern and latest research on the application of MB for treating AD.

Keywords: alzheimer disease; alzheimer’s dementia; amyloid-β; axonal degeneration; hippocampal ca1; hippocampal fibres; methylene blue; primary senile degenerative dementia; synaptic plasticity; white matter.

Publication types

  • Review