Difficult-to-treat patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: A review of clinical trial results

EJHaem. 2023 Aug 2;4(4):1117-1131. doi: 10.1002/jha2.743. eCollection 2023 Nov.


Overall outcomes for multiple myeloma have improved due to the availability of new therapies, but patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma harbouring certain factors continue to pose a therapeutic challenge. These challenging features include high-risk cytogenetics, renal impairment, patient characteristics such as age and frailty, and extramedullary disease. Prior refractory status and number of prior lines add further complexity to the treatment of these patients. While newer regimens are available and have suggested efficacy in these patient populations through subgroup analyses, differences in trial definitions and cut-offs make meaningful comparisons difficult. This review aims to examine the available clinical trial data for patients with high-risk cytogenetics, renal impairment, age and frailty and extramedullary disease.

Keywords: RRMM; age; cytogenetics; extramedullary disease; frailty; renal impairment.

Publication types

  • Review