Physiologic and subjective changes from smokeless tobacco withdrawal

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987 Jan;41(1):103-7. doi: 10.1038/clpt.1987.17.


This study prospectively examined withdrawal symptoms in persons using Copenhagen smokeless tobacco and in persons smoking cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco chewers (N = 16) and cigarette smokers (N = 11) were examined during a 6-day period, during which time a number of measures were administered. Subjects used smokeless tobacco or smoked cigarettes on an ad libitum basis for a 3-day baseline period and then underwent tobacco deprivation. The significant changes that occurred relative to baseline after smokeless tobacco deprivation included decreased heart rate and orthostatic pulse change and increased craving for tobacco, confusion, eating, number of awakenings, and total scores on a withdrawal symptoms checklist for both self-rated and observer-rated measures. There were more changes and changes of greater severity among cigarette smokers.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cotinine / analysis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Saliva / analysis
  • Smoking
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology
  • Tobacco*
  • Tobacco, Smokeless*


  • Cotinine