During embryonic development, the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system exhibit a coordinated developmental process through intricate interactions. Congenital heart disease (CHD) refers to structural or functional abnormalities that occur during embryonic or prenatal heart development and is the most common congenital disorder. One of the most common complications in CHD patients is neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). However, the specific mechanisms, connections, and precise ways in which CHD co-occurs with NDD remain unclear. According to relevant research, both genetic and non-genetic factors are significant contributors to the co-occurrence of sporadic CHD and NDD. Genetic variations, such as chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations, play a role in the susceptibility to both CHD and NDD. Further research should aim to identify common molecular mechanisms that underlie the co-occurrence of CHD and NDD, possibly originating from shared genetic mutations or shared gene regulation. Therefore, this review article summarizes the current advances in the genetics of CHD co-occurring with NDD, elucidating the application of relevant gene detection techniques. This is done with the aim of exploring the genetic regulatory mechanisms of CHD co-occurring with NDD at the gene level and promoting research and treatment of developmental disorders related to the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.
Keywords: Congenital heart disease; Gene detection techniques; Gene family; Neurodevelopment; Synergistic developmental abnormalities.
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