Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among residents of Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2023 Nov;27(22):10935-10943. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202311_34461.


OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to estimate the prevalence of adult ADHD among Saudi adults, determine its demographic correlates, the impact of the disorder on school/work, social life, and productivity, and describe its association with other psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety.

Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional study involving 993 adult participants was carried out utilizing a validated online questionnaire that was given to the Saudi population between January 2022 and March 2022. Socio-demographic information, the adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) are among the data gathered from the questionnaire.

Results: Participants' median age group was 21-30 years (48.4%), with 77.8% being females. The prevalence of participants who were positive for ADHD symptoms was 46.6%. In univariate analysis, age group, marital status, depression, anxiety, Sheehan scale domains, day lost, and unproductive days were all significant risk factors for ADHD. In a multivariate regression analysis, anxiety, depression, symptoms that disrupted work/school work, family life/home responsibilities, and days unproductive remained statistically significant and determined as the significant independent predictors of positive ADHD.

Conclusions: Morbidity of adult ADHD symptoms appreciably existed among younger adults of Saudi Arabia, mostly students with no favorable genders. Adult ADHD symptoms were found to affect the quality of social life and work/schoolwork performance as they decreased the productivity rate and increased the absenteeism rate. Moreover, symptoms of depression and anxiety were in a profound correlation with Adult ADHD symptoms.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / psychology
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity* / diagnosis
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity* / epidemiology
  • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity* / psychology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Saudi Arabia / epidemiology
  • Young Adult