Management and follow-up of pregnancy-onset thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: the French experience

Blood Adv. 2024 Jan 9;8(1):183-193. doi: 10.1182/bloodadvances.2023011972.


Pregnancy-onset thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare and life-threatening disease of which diagnosis and management requires experienced multidisciplinary teams. The mechanisms responsible for a deficiency in the disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13 (ADAMTS13) leading to pregnancy-onset TTP may be congenital or acquired, and studying ADAMTS13 conformation could be of interest. The differential diagnosis between TTP and other pregnancy-associated thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) is often challenging. Our retrospective multicenter study highlights the significance and the challenges associated with pregnancy-onset TTP and childbirth in terms of diagnosis, obstetric management, and follow-up aspects. Among 1174 pregnancy-onset TMA enrolled in the French Registry for TMA from 2000 to 2020, we identified 108 pregnancy-onset TTP: 52 immune-mediated TTP (iTTP, 48.1%), 27 acquired TTP of unidentified mechanism (uTTP, 25%), and 29 congenital TTP (cTTP, 26.9%). Data show that maternal outcome is good (survival rate: 95%) and fetal outcome is linked to the gestational age at the onset of the disease (survival rate: 75.5%). Three distinct entities with different natural histories emerged: pregnancy-onset iTTP appears similar to idiopathic iTTP, with an open ADAMTS13 conformation, and is marked by a relapse risk independent of subsequent pregnancies; pregnancy-onset uTTP appears to have a different pathophysiology with an unexpected open ADAMTS13 conformation and a very low relapse risk independent of subsequent pregnancies; finally, pregnancy-onset cTTP is characterized by the necessity of pregnancy as a systematic and specific trigger and a need for prophylactic plasmatherapy for subsequent pregnancies. This trial was registered at as #NCT00426686, and at the Health Authority and the French Ministry of Health (P051064/PHRC AOM05012).

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic* / diagnosis
  • Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic* / epidemiology
  • Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic* / therapy
  • Recurrence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Thrombotic Microangiopathies*

Associated data