Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with Tourette syndrome; 1997 to 2022: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Ital J Pediatr. 2023 Dec 1;49(1):160. doi: 10.1186/s13052-023-01562-0.


Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a disorder in which the patient has a history of multiple motor and vocal tics. Depression and anxiety are common in these patients. The results of the studies show different prevalence of these disorders in patients with TS. So, the objective of the present study was to liken the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with TS by systematic review and meta-analysis. The present study was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines during 1997-2022. The articles were obtained from Scopus, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar databases. I2 was used to investigate heterogeneity between studies. Data were analyzed by comprehensive meta-analysis software (Version 2). Finally, 12 articles with a sample size of n = 3812 were included in the study. As a result of combining the results of the studies, the total estimate of the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with TS was 36.4% (95% confidence interval: 21.1-54.9%) and 53.5% (95% confidence interval: 39.9-66.6%), respectively. The results of meta-regression showed that by increasing mean age (9-31.5 years), the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with TS increased significantly (P<0.001). The results of the present study showed that the prevalence of depression and anxiety was high in patients with TS. Therefore, it is suggested that health officials and policy makers design measures to prevent and control these disorders.

Keywords: Anxiety; Depression; Meta-analysis; Prevalence; Tourette syndrome.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anxiety / epidemiology
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Child
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Tourette Syndrome* / epidemiology
  • Young Adult