Chemokine- and chemokine receptor-based signature predicts immunotherapy response in female colorectal adenocarcinoma patients

Sci Rep. 2023 Dec 4;13(1):21358. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-48623-2.


The clinical significance and comprehensive characteristics of chemokines and chemokine receptors in female patients with advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma have not ever been reported. Our study explored the expression profiles of chemokines and chemokine receptors and constructed a chemokine- and chemokine receptor-based signature in female patients with advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma. Four independent cohorts containing 1335 patients were enrolled in our study. Univariate Cox regression and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses were performed to construct the signature. CIBERSORT was used to evaluate the landscape of immune cell infiltration. Thirty-two pairs of tissue specimens of female advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and two CRC cell lines were used to validate the signature in vitro. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to validate the mRNA and protein expression levels of signature genes. EdU and colony formation assays were performed to examine proliferative ability. Transwell and wound healing assays were used to evaluate cell invasion and migration capacity. During the signature construction and validation process, we found that the signature was more applicable to female patients with advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma. Hence, the subsequent study mainly focused on the particular subgroup. Enrichment analyses revealed that the signature was closely related to immunity. The landscape of immune cell infiltration presented that the signature was significantly associated with T cells CD8 and neutrophils. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) confirmed that the high-risk group was chiefly enriched in the tumor-promoting related pathways and biological processes, whereas the low-risk group was mainly enriched in anti-tumor immune response pathways and biological processes. The signature was closely correlated with CTLA4, PDL1, PDL2, TMB, MSI, and TIDE, indicating that our signature could serve as a robust biomarker for immunotherapy and chemotherapy response. ROC curves verified that our signature had more robust prognostic power than all immune checkpoints and immunotherapy-related biomarkers. Finally, we used 32 pairs of tissue specimens and 2 CRC cell lines to validate our signature in vitro. We first provided a robust prognostic chemokine- and chemokine receptor-based signature, which could serve as a novel biomarker for immunotherapy and chemotherapy response to guide individualized treatment for female patients with advanced colorectal adenocarcinoma.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma* / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma* / therapy
  • Chemokines / genetics
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Prognosis
  • Receptors, Chemokine


  • Chemokines
  • Receptors, Chemokine