Influenza A virus infection alters the resistance profile of gut microbiota to clinically relevant antibiotics

Microbiol Spectr. 2024 Jan 11;12(1):e0363522. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.03635-22. Epub 2023 Dec 5.


Influenza virus infection affects both lung and intestinal bacterial community composition. Most of the published analyses focus on the characterization of the microbiota composition changes. Here we assess functional alterations of gut microbiota such as nutrient and antibiotic resistance changes during an acute respiratory tract infection. Upon influenza A virus (IAV) infection, cecal microbiota drops accompanied by a decrease in the ability to metabolize some common nutrients under aerobic conditions. At the same time, the cecal community presents an increase in resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics, particularly cephalosporins. Functional characterization of complex communities presents an additional and necessary element of analysis that nowadays is mainly limited to taxonomic description. The consequences of these functional alterations could affect treatment strategies, especially in multimicrobial infections.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance; cenoantibiogram; influenza virus; intestinal microbiota; microbial community.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Influenza A virus*
  • Influenza, Human* / drug therapy
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents